Cultural and Heritage

Having had an interesting past and being a part of the international spice route
many hundreds of years ago,
Malaysia has turned into a mosaic of cultures.
Everything from its people to its architecture reflect a colourful heritage and
an amalgamated culture. To understand Malaysian culture, you must first get
to know its people.


Malays, Chinese, Indians and many other ethnic groups have lived together in
Malaysia for generations. All these cultures have influenced each other,
creating a truly Malaysian culture. The largest ethnic groups in Malaysia are
the Malays, Chinese and Indians. In Sabah and Sarawak, there are a myriad of
indigenous ethnic groups with their
own unique culture and heritage.

Today, the Malays, Malaysia's largest ethnic group, make up more than 50%
of the population. In Malaysia, the term Malay refers to a person who practices
Islam and Malay traditions, speaks the Malay language and whose ancestors
are Malays. Their conversion to Islam from Hinduism and Theravada Buddhism
began in the 1400s, largely influenced by the decision of the royal court of
Melaka. The Malays are known for their gentle mannerisms and rich arts heritage.

The second largest ethnic group, the Malaysian Chinese form about 25% of the
population. Mostly descendents of Chinese immigrants during the 19th century,
the Chinese are known for their diligence and keen business sense. The three
sub-groups who speak a different dialect of the Chinese language are the
Hokkien who live predominantly on the northern island of Penang; the
Cantonese who live predominantly in the capital city Kuala Lumpur; and the
Mandarin-speaking group who live predominantly in the southern state of Johor.

The smallest of three main ethnic groups, the Malaysian Indians form about
10% of the population. Most are descendants of Tamil-speaking South Indian
immigrants who came to the country during the British colonial rule. Lured by
the prospect of breaking out of the Indian caste system, they came to Malaysia
to build a better life. Predominantly Hindus, they brought with them their
colourful culture such as ornate temples, spicy cuisine and exquisite sarees.


Orang Asli
Orang Asli is a general term used for any indigenous groups that are found in
Peninsular Malaysia. They are divided into three main tribal groups: Negrito,
Senoi and Proto-Malay. The Negrito usually live in the north, the Senoi in the
middle and the Proto-Malay in the south. Each group or sub-group has its own
language and culture. Some are fishermen, some farmers and some are

Collectively known as the Dayaks, the Iban, Bidayuh and Orang Ulu are the
major ethnic groups in the state of Sarawak. Dayak, which means upstream or
inland, is used as a blanket term by the Islamic coastal population for over 200
tribal groups. Typically, they live in longhouses, traditional community homes
that can house 20 to 100 families.

The largest of Sarawak's ethnic groups, the Ibans form 30% of the state's
population. Sometimes erroneously referred to as the Sea Dayaks because of
their skill with boats, they are actually an upriver tribe from the heart of
Kalimantan. In the past, they were a fearsome warrior race renowned for
headhunting and piracy. Traditionally, they worship a triumvirate of gods under
the authority of Singalang Burung, the bird-god of war. Although now mostly
Christians, many traditional customs are still practised.
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